Thursday, August 27, 2020

The Giver Essays (449 words) - The Giver, Son,

The Giver It is what's to come. There is no war, no craving, and no agony. Nobody in The Community needs for anything. Everybody is accommodated. Every Family Unit is qualified for one female and male kid. Every individual from The Community has their calling deliberately decided for them by the Committee of Elders, and they never commit an error. In this day and age, one of the most loved assets is family and a home. In Jonas' reality, a family is all ways the equivalent. There is one mother, one father, one male kid, and one male sister. All the homes are the equivalent. The furniture was down to earth, solid, and the capacity was plainly characterized. There was a bed for dozing, a table for eating, and a work area for examining. In the work area there were just three books: a word reference, the network volume, and the Book of Rules. In our reality, life can take you anyplace. Possibly you can be rich or be a bum in the city. In the book, your life was chosen for you by the Committee of Elders. On the off chance that you bombed your activity, you were discharged. For most occupations, when you have the activity, you have it forever. The main special case is for the birthmothers. When they have had three kids, they become some portion of the Clean-Up Crew. In our life, we appreciate the world to its fullest degree. In the Giver, there is no shading. Everything is highly contrasting. A few people don't get the opportunity to appreciate life. Children that are to light or unfortunate are discharged. Older individuals are discharged when they have no utilization to the network. Individuals who come up short with their activity are discharged. In our day of living, the main way you would be executed is on the off chance that you perpetrated a wrongdoing like killing. In their reality, individuals are killed, or what they like to call discharge, for straightforward reasons. Such would be: Babies that are to light or unfortunate are discharged. Older individuals are discharged when they have no utilization to the network. Individuals who come up short with their activity are discharged. Everything is the equivalent in the network aside from one spot. That spot would be in the Giver's living quarter and in the Giver's reality. His house has extravagant furnishings and racks of books all around his room. The greatest distinction is that he can see shading. In spite of the fact that there may appear to be various contrasts, there are a few likenesses in these two universes. The two universes have vehicles. In the two universes individuals like to ride there bicycles. Children despite everything need to go to class. Guardians and adolescents need to work. Reference index The Book The Giver Book Reports

Saturday, August 22, 2020


Wangoh Dynamics Technologies Network and Telecommunication Services and Solutions Memo To: The Government of Sierra Leone (West Africa) From: Saa E. Fillie-Founder/CEO and Network Engineer Date: March 20. 2013 Ref: The Cost Benefit of Virtualization Technology Many venturesome organizations are searching for approaches to better IT offices, improve plans of action and make lower working expenses. Until a couple of years prior, it appeared as though a sweeping answer for those issues has been dealt with by virtualization that is currently a solid, proficient and adjustable answer for those business solicitations and more.Whether used to give better client care, to be more eco-accommodating or to acquire organization memory, the virtualization innovation of today offer numerous advantages to venturesome organizations everywhere throughout the world, making imaginative answers for work put together issues with respect to a regular schedule. Virtualization has not just caught the busines s world by storm with its inventive and innovative arrangements however it likewise offers demonstrated points of interest in a few territories of industry, IT and administration. The following is a rundown of a couple of the focal points and arrangements that virtualization innovation can offer the undertaking around the globe.Virtual Desktops Many companies and ventures are hoping to lessen their impression and make increasingly effective working frameworks. This should be possible with one part of virtualization, virtual work areas. Virtual work areas can make more space inside a PC or on real work area space using programming which extends a work areas condition past physical cutoff points through virtualization. This can make a more eco-accommodating condition with less PCs utilizing vitality and lower working expenses just as offering consistent advances between numerous working system.Enhanced System Security A dread of numerous ventures considering virtualization in their bu siness is that all the upsides of this innovation will bargain the security of touchy, private and lawful organization data. In any case, that isn't the situation; in truth virtualization in business gives upgraded security, making it increasingly hard for programmers to discover key data. In contrast to other security frameworks, virtualization can single out and follow requests.If a solicitation appears to be fishy or unsatisfactory, virtualization security advancements will reroute programmers to another area, making sure about and protecting venturesome business data from hurt. Better System Reliability Non-virtualized systems and frameworks are increasingly inclined to accidents and memory debasement because of programming portions, for example, gadget drivers. Through virtualization, I/O assets can be disconnected giving better security (see above,) unwavering quality and even accessibility across gadgets for business purposes. Catastrophe RecoveryAlong indistinguishable lines from better framework unwavering quality, virtualization additionally gives venturesome organizations better, quicker and progressively secure debacle recuperation. This is conceivable in light of the fact that this innovation can take a virtual picture or data and move it to another server in the case that the first server might be smashing. This forestalls data misfortune and gives a consistent stream of secure and safe data. Space and Server Consolidation When an association has a physical database, it can take up to ten machines to give a similar measure of remaining burden to one virtual machine.This implies that up to ten applications can be ran on a singular virtual machine, solidifying physical space just as server use, thusly sparing vitality utilization, working expenses and server costs. Versatility One bit of leeway of virtualization innovation is its novel capacity to be adaptable. This means not at all like buying X measure of PC memory or RAM for an organization, the potential outcomes with virtualization are unfathomable. The remaining task at hand and space required one month may change in the following and virtualization suits those progressions by fluxuating to fit the necessities of an undertaking at the hour of use.This additionally saves money on vitality utilization and working expenses since virtualization specialist organizations oft will just charge for what was utilized. Unending Memory and Accessibilities One part of versatility is virtualization’s favorable position of apparently interminable memory. Venturesome organizations can exploit boundless memory to house business data, customer subtleties, solicitations and money related records all in an available, crash ensured and secure spot. Virtualization is available anyplace there is a web association, take into account access to significant organization data anyplace in the world.This is incredible for voyaging entrepreneurs, telecommute representatives or access away from work. This likewise permits organizations to offer better client care to customers as a result of the simple entry just as the brisk draw up of spared data put away in a boundless memory area. Numerous venturesome organizations are searching for approaches to better IT divisions, improve plans of action and make lower working costs, which can all be cultivated with the cutting edge wonder innovation that is virtualization.Whether used to give better client care, to be more eco-accommodating or to acquire organization memory, the virtualization innovation of today offer numerous advantages to ambitious organizations everywhere throughout the world, making imaginative answers for work put together issues with respect to a regular schedule. Rate of return School of considerations have contended in different stage about the enormous capital venture return in virtualization, there are various variables which decide how to approach choosing what kind of checking an Information Technology (IT) office ought to set out on.In request to appropriately assess a particular IT condition, one should initially decide if to virtualize. Virtualization can be worried as a lifeline for innumerable IT divisions in the course of recent years. What first should be resolved be that as it may, is if in actuality an association actually needs to virtualize. Maybe database, application servers, organize administrations, and so on don’t genuinely need to become virtualized, perhaps they do. What we are attempting to decide today is the Return on Investment (ROI) for virtualization.Technologist, Researchers and Students measures virtualizing an IT foundation. In the event that an association is procuring another organization (or being exchanged) and hence moving areas, they should initially investigate their server room*. On the off chance that it is stuffed, under fueled or obsolete, at that point yes†¦ virtualization is most likely significant. What everybody in the IT divi sion needs to know at that point, is virtualization directly for my association and all the more critically my specialty? [pic]The assets being saved money on simply influence and equipment along are faltering. Keeping costs lower for the general association is clearly pivotal, particularly with regards to things, for example, never redeploying application solutions*. This will spare you time and in this manner cash: no server equipment invigorating costs, constrained yearly server-related force costs*. The more prominent inquiries at that point emerge, what amount of time will it take a division to do the total switch? Will the ROI merit the expanded work hours to get familiar with the virtualized world?What kinds of difficulties will come to fruition from the general business point of view? |Reducing Infrastructure Costs Through Virtualization | |â | |Introduction | |Nowadays, we live in unsure occasions all around the world.When it comes to engineering | |and plan, we should th ink much more in costsâ€unlike in different occasions, when we used to think| | |first of the arrangement and afterward in costs. On the off chance that we had a smoothed out and characterized return on | |investment (ROI), at exactly that point did the venture get the green light. Today, in the event that we consider | |projects, it is important to have an exact financial plan and characterized cost first before we can | |start to consider the venture. | |Upon brief impression of what IT design is, one finds that the model that the entire | |world favors (in view of expenses and the development of advances) is the virtualization | |model.Ten years prior, it was about decentralizationâ€both in server farms and servers, | |and in correspondence and work areas. At the point when we thought of an application, we generally attempted to | |have the layers of such an application as near the customer as could reasonably be expected; server farms, | |databases, and email servers were appropriated everywhere. | |This circumstance was the consequence of being not able to confront the gigantic expense of having equipment | |equipment of various huge abilities, (for example, an eight-processor server and parts and | |lots of RAM gigabytes) or having excess point-to-point correspondence joins with great | |bandwidthâ€the cost of which just enormous organizations could consider remembering for their | |architecture.All of this empowered a decentralized IT organization model that required| | |specialists in the various foundation of each site. | |â | |The Original Model | |Although this model worked for quite a long time, numerous things were not viewed as that today have | |rendered this model not as productive as was at first idea. | |[pic] | |Figure 1.Typical plan | |â | |Taking for instance the examination of a disseminated application that was formulated 10 years | |ago, there was a design in which it was critical to have the information close the client,| | |which prompted the accompanying plan: | |A database in the focal office in which the data from the various destinations, the | |database from each site, the application server from each site, and the nearby applications| | |that were introduced on every work area were completely united. | |A replication conspire among the databases was utilized for the conveyance of data. | |This drove us to have database organization for each site, other than having on each site | |an infra

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay Topics With Answers - The Essay Topic Basics

Essay Topics With Answers - The Essay Topic BasicsWith hundreds of different academic essay topics with answers, it can be easy to get overwhelmed when trying to pick one out. This article will discuss a few of the most common questions about writing an essay, including the topic of the answer, and how to prepare for it.First, we must answer the question: what is an answer? An answer is defined as a piece of information or a conclusion that one places in an essay to support the facts given in the text. A correct answer will always provide a more complete answer to the question at hand.Second, let's discuss the topic. The main thing to know about any topic in an essay is that it should fit in with the author's thesis statement. The idea is to state one's ideas in the form of text, and leave room for the reader to form his or her own thoughts. Let's discuss topics in more detail.The topic is the problem of the essay. It defines the entire nature of the topic of the essay. An example of a topic could be: 'How do the kids learn best?' If your topic is a science topic, then you will want to write in such a way that allows the reader to deduce the best way to learn more about the subject, which could take some work, but will eventually lead to a solid academic paper.Subject is the actual content of the essay. It is the main focus of the essay, and it will greatly affect the way you write. In general, this is the part of the essay that will be read by the readers.As well as the subject, we must also consider the writer. If the writer is very analytical, then the content of the essay is much easier to digest. However, if the writer is extremely visual, then the essay will be much harder to read, as he or she will be too busy creating images in their mind to allow for proper comprehension.The answer is the next most important part of the essay. The answer is the final product that can be presented in a positive manner to the reader. When writing the answer, keep in mind the fact that you are allowed to guess at some facts. It is possible that your answers may not be 100% correct, but it is important to keep this in mind when answering the question.I hope that these tips will help you choose the best essay topics to start writing your future academic paper. Good luck!

Monday, May 25, 2020

Peoples Reactions Towards Others In Their Community...

Peoples reactions towards others in their community emphasizes how influential the past has affected their lives both physically and psychologically. In an attempt to regain past experiences and memories to maintain their sanity, the characters in Christina Garcia’s Dreaming in Cuban slowly begin to deteriorate into a society that remains stagnant in economic development. The disjointed family of Celia and Jorge Del Pino attempt to live life through their own fantasies to either escape or embrace the overpowering effects of the Cuban revolution. These fantasies coerce the minds of each character into a period of exile, but despite this ambiguous harm inflicted upon themselves, their persistence to attain their idea of success blinds them†¦show more content†¦Isabel Alvarez-Borland explains how Celia â€Å"experiences a loss of the voice which can be understood in terms of gender as well as political history† (47). While she does temporarily become mute to socie ty with her husband present, she later attempts to move herself forward in the revolutionary progress after the death of her husband. As she begins to integrate herself further into Cuba as the overseer of Havana, she develops an independence and courage to revolt with El Lider. This act of justice is significant because of the fact that it is done all for her initial attraction, Gustavo. The pearl earrings presented to her by Gustavo had â€Å"the symbol of patriotism and purity† (Dreaming in Cuban, 36). Not only did they empower her to become a revolutionary, but she was determined to fulfill Gustavo’s perspective that â€Å"Cuba, too, would one day be free of bloodsuckers† (Dreaming in Cuban, 36). Eventually, her restless attempt to become something for Gustavo catches up to her until she has no choice but attempt to pass on her life to others who can maintain the succession of her past. Unfortunately, she has a very small amount of people standing behind her choices and turn to their own desires. One thing that Celia and her granddaughter Lourdes Puente have in common is their desperate desire for patriotism. Although they haveShow MoreRelated Analysis of The Unknown Citizen by W.H. Auden Essay examples1464 Words   |  6 PagesHe served his duty in War, worked in Fudge Motors Inc., had a Health-card, and never caused any sort of rebellion towards the state. This citizen had an overall average life, where he was married and had five children. Auden is writing about the state erecting a monument in honour of this citizen’s doings as a great citizen in the community whom represented many other people in the country. This poem might seem to be very direct and clear; however, the author does not literally mean whatRead MoreThe Fat Kid By Berry College1509 Words   |  7 PagesTo Publish the â€Å"Fat Kid† Poem Berry College identifies itself as a â€Å"liberal arts institution with Christian values that emphasizes its focus on their students’ intellectual, moral, and spiritual growth while challenging them to use their learning toward community and civic betterment.† As one means to develop their students’ knowledge, Berry College gives students the opportunity to submit pieces of high literary merit to Ramifications, a literary magazine that displays the art and literature composedRead MoreMarketing Plan For Whole Foods1390 Words   |  6 Pagescountry. Beginning with their first expansion in 1984, Whole Foods has consistently grown domestically. In 2007 Whole Foods began opening stores in the United Kingdom. While continually opening new stores, the company fueled its expansion by acquiring other food chains. For instance, it acquired one of its largest competitors, Wild Oats, in 2007. Whole Foods has consistently ranked as one of the World’s Most Ethical co mpanies for its emphasis on organic food, healthy living, customer satisfaction, qualityRead MoreBeing A Stigmatized Person By Sociologist Erving Goffman Essay916 Words   |  4 Pagesindividuals feel about themselves and their relationships with people that are considered â€Å"normal†. Stigmatized individuals are people who are not socially accepted and are constantly eager to alter their social identifies: physically deformed people, mentally ill patients, drug addicts, homosexuals, etc. Goffman looks at variety of strategies when it comes to stigmatized individuals, especially ones that deal with rejection from others. Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity was publishedRead MoreThe Negro Artist And The Racial Mountain878 Words   |  4 Pagesracism black people experience as a result of their pressure to conform to the standards of a white-driven culture. Both â€Å"Who’s Passing for Who?† and â€Å"The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain† reflect white culture’s continuous appropriation of black culture and the effects this has on the black community. Both pieces emphasize the social hierarchy in place in America that historically and presently continues to keep black people at the bottom and white people in control. White people believe theyRead MoreThe Mission Of Community Policing935 Words   |  4 PagesDevelopment of Policing The goals of this paper is to show how the mission of community policing can drive all aspects of training, therefore training becoming the key to promoting the shift to community policing. This requires analyzing aspects of training to ensure they promote the mission of Community Policing, which provides decentralized and personalized police service that empowers the community to participate in the process of making the neighborhood better and safer. Command of temperRead MoreThe Wizard Of Oz And Setting Of Munchkin Land And The Birds Sand918 Words   |  4 Pagesnovel differ in their reactions towards Dorothy, their response to the witch’s death as well as their interactions with each other. The setting of Munchkin land in both the film and the novel vary greatly. Within the novel, the land is described as idyllic countryside where â€Å"the sun shone bright and the birds sand sweetly.† The setting description invokes a serene and peaceful image with emphasis on the natural world. Munchkin land is described as a quaint farming community with emphasis on agricultureRead MoreIs BDSM Still Deviant1605 Words   |  7 Pages BDSM is an acronym for bondage/discipline, dominance/submission, and sadism /masochism. The term BDSM is defined as a variety of erotic practices involving power play. Now because this term does not cover everyone in the kink community, known as an umbrella term, people are now starting to use the term WIIWD, which stands for â€Å"What it is we do†. I will be using symbolic interaction theory to describe why BDSM is not deviant in our society today. Our society is always flowing and changing withRead MoreRemember The Titans Film Analysis1176 Words   |  5 PagesPrejudice, as defined in psychology, is a negative attitude towards members of a group, based on an individual’s involvement of that group. All of us are subject to be a target of prejudice concerns. Any one man or woman who is prejudice against a group, will tend to ignore the individual characteristics or behavior of members of the group that they themselves share, solely based on the reason they associate themselves to a different group. In the film ‘Remember the Titans’, prejudice is portrayedRead MoreAnalysis Of Edward Scissorhands1058 Words   |  5 PagesPeg finds him and bring him to live with her family. Edward immediately develops an attraction to Peg’s daughter, Kim, though she has a boyfriend. Towards the end of the film, Kim tells Edward that she loves him, and Edward seems to be completed. However, Edward struggles to conform to society, and eventually is forced by the members of the community to return to his mansion, isolated from any human interaction. The film combines a make-believe character, often found in children’s books, with elements

Friday, May 15, 2020

Differences Between Eastern And Western Cultures - 1880 Words

There has been extensive research done on the differences between cultures and how they react to conformity. It can be seen that overall there are major differences between Eastern and WEIRD (western, educated, industrial, rich, and democratic) cultures in the values associated with conformity. These values associated with conformity are not isolated in different age groups within a culture. The three papers being discussed in this paper, Kim Markus (1999), Clegg et al. (2017), and Zhang and Thomas (1994) all discuss these differences between Eastern and Western cultures. Through these papers, it can be seen that there is a clear distinction between cultures and their views on conformity whether it be positive or negative. The†¦show more content†¦Kim Markus (1999) found that the European-Americans also viewed the unique minority more positively although there was not a large difference between the preference for the Chinese Americans as well. This could have been d ue to their setting as the Chinese American participants had been surrounded by American ideals rather than Chinese ideals. In the second study that Kim Markus (1999) did, they replicated study 1 but changed the source of their participants and the number of figures in their questionnaire. They chose participants who were immersed in one of the two cultural contexts in order to be able to generalize the study results. Since this study was a replication of study 1, their hypothesis and predictions were the same. The participants that were chosen were university students, 38 European-American students from Stanford University and 38 Korean students from Soongsil University. Comparatively, the results from study one and two show more differences in the preferences between the unique and plural minority figures between the American and Korean participants. The results showed that there was a stronger difference between unique minority figures between European-Americans and Koreans with the medians of preference being 5.88 and 3.81 respectively (Kim Markus 1999). This preference of liking for the unique minority figures inShow MoreRelatedDifferences between family in western and eastern culture1389 Words   |  6 Pagesspeakers, I walk the fine line between being conservative Indian - those of Ivy League chemical engineering PhD s, of having no less than 50 cousins, of spending every spare moment in life with family - and being a Westerner, coolly expressing my ever-apparent condescending attitude towards those of the East, looking in disgust at the seemingly uncouth Indian parents who smooch their children at every chance. I have been on this line my whole life, torn between two cultures - the Indian, and the AmericanRead MoreCultural Differences Between The East And West Essay1010 Words   |  5 PagesCultural differences between the east and west There is a great different between the cultures of western country and eastern country. The cultures of the East and the West really distinguish each other a lot. This is because the culture systems are two separate systems on the whole. Due to the far distance and the steep areas between the East and West, they grew up in their own ways with few cultural exchange so cultural differences has been formed a lot. I’m going to describe the differences in threeRead MoreExamine the Roles of Hierarchy and Power Within East and Western Enterprises1157 Words   |  5 PagesContents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 2 Culture............................................................................................................................................. 2 Eastern culture versus Western culture ........................................................................................... 3 Power Distance Index (PDI): Geert Hofstede ..................Read MoreRetail Marketing Is All About Cultural Differences and Communication1559 Words   |  7 PagesZi Zhao ADMN3170 0440210 Retail Marketing Is All About Cultural Differences and Communication In the 21 century, the process of globalization is getting faster. More and more people tend to be involved in the world community. People should be able to understand people will not have too much difficulties to communicate with each other in a very same cultural background. Using the same communicate skills to communicate a person with a very different cultural background might lead that personRead MoreAnalysis Of Ayaan Hirsi Ali Speaks Of Honor Killings And Forced Marriages1519 Words   |  7 PagesAyaan Hirsi Ali speaks of honor killings and forced marriages in Middle Eastern society in the The AHA Foundation 2nd Annual Conference. She begins with describing her personal situation when she was younger; her arranged marriage to a relative and then her escape to the Netherlands at the age of twenty-two in an effort to avoid this marriage where she was met with an entirely different culture where the pressure of the honor of the family was not forced upon females by both femal e and male partiesRead MoreRelationships Between Western And Western Culture1182 Words   |  5 PagesIntertextual relationships between texts exist to influence a reader’s perception and add layers of depth to the texts’ meanings resulting in a heightened experience and a more significant comprehension of the texts’ ideas. Detecting such intertextual relationships between two wildly different texts; Walt Disney’s 1994 animated musical epic, The Lion King, and Studio Gainax’s 2007 animated mecha television series, Gurren Lagann, has enriched my understanding of the differences between the texts’ representationRead MoreA Brief Note On Business Negotiator And International Business Managerial975 Words   |  4 Pagesand international business managerial. The objectives of this literature are: †¢ Identify the strategies and tactics for different ways of arguing †¢ Identify how culture influences the ways of arguing †¢ Evaluate the effectiveness of ways of arguing at different cultures †¢ Identify the interaction of the two strategies when different cultures meet In this literature, most of the literature collected is through online platforms, such as UWE online library and Google Scholar while hardcopy books that wereRead MoreKey Elements Of Orientalism In Aladdin956 Words   |  4 Pagesparticularly Asia and the Middle East (Said, 2001). Oriental culture is often represented as ‘exotic’ or ‘other’ in some cases; this is because the West believes the East is to be feared. I will explore the key elements of Orientalism and explain how this functions in the film Aladdin (Ron Clements, John Musker: 1992). In Aladdin, there are distinctive differences between the ‘East’ and the ‘West’ which Said states, creates binary oppositions between them. This is demonstrated through the exploration ofRead MoreHow Education Can Be Run And Who Should Benefit From It?873 Words   |  4 Pagesacross cultures. Those who belong to the Eastern and Western cultures share similar views of education being the key to success, yet both cultures have their own views on how to get to that point of success. Therefore, most cultures have very different views on how an education system should be run and who should benefit from it. Comparing four popular world cultures, there are significant differences in the role education plays between each. This paper will explore not only the differences in theRead MoreAladdin And Orientalism : A Little Bit Of The Middle East1239 Words   |  5 PagesOrientalism by: the difference between east and west, the start of European colonization the Europeans came in contact with the lesser developed countries of the east and found their civilization and culture very exotic and established the science of orientalism which was the study of the Orientals. The movie Aladdin was successful because it should a new way of using magic and a culture not many were aware of but unfortunately it was judged as being bad from being a Middle Eastern movie and now Aladdin

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Desirees Baby Literary Analysis - 1989 Words

Kate Chopin’s stories Desirees Baby, The Story of an Hour, At the Cadian Ball, and A Pair of Silk Stockings, were written in the 19th century in times when women had no rights, and had to portray an image of a loving wife. They were considered selfish if they thought otherwise, and their job was to make their husbands happy at all times. This was the century of a turning point for women, in which they had desires test their limits imposed on their sex. Critics of her stories list the analysis of assumptions, desertion, and stereotype. However, most critics leave out the analysis of grief. Interpreters of Kate Chopin’s scholars, like Gary H. Mayer in his article â€Å"A Matter of Behavior: A Semantic Analysis of Five Kate Chopin†¦show more content†¦While Bobinot is full Acadian, and is placed in a high class. In these four stories, Chopin also uses stereotyping by describing either race, sexuality, or cultures. For instance, in Desirees Baby, the story focuse s on race, in The Story of an Hour, the story focuses on sexuality, and in both At the Cadian Ball, and A Pair of Silk Stockings, the stories focus on culture. However, these scholars are not dealing with the grief in Kate Chopin’s stories. Kate Chopin’s stories Desirees Baby, The Story of an Hour, At the Cadian Ball, and A Pair of Silk Stockings, all were written during the 19th century. They all took place in Louisiana, the place where Kate Chopin herself lived with her husband, and her six children. All four of Kate Chopin’s stories are about feminism. For instance, they all talk about women understanding their feminism and their sexuality or how women are experiencing motherhood. Chopin’s stories also focus on women’s rebellion against their conformities. For instance, they rebel against their social customs that limit their possibilities in life, because in the time when Chopin’s stories were written, women’s rights were limited to very little.Show MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of Desirees Baby1022 Words   |  5 PagesIn Kate Chopin’s short story, â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† Armand Aubigny experienced the happiest marriage one could ever hope for with Desir ee. They even have a romantic â€Å"love at first sight† experience. But then all of this is thrown away because of Armand. â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† has a significant impact on its readers because of the irony of Armand’s actions. Chopin describes this through his complex characterization which may explain why racism is able to thrive for centuries. One charming feature of Armand’sRead MoreAn Analysis Of Armand Aubigny s Desiree s Baby 1538 Words   |  7 PagesArmand Aubigny’s Pride in â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† by Kate Chopin Through history, we have always yearned independence and equality as human beings. Undoubtedly, Kate Chopin is an extraordinary example She has landed a commendable place among American writers worthy of recognition. Born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1850, Kate was raised by strong women who taught her the value of an education. Her family gave her a revolutionary vision and a feminist personality, but it was her talented and passionate skillsRead MoreDesiree s Baby : A Literary Analysis1582 Words   |  7 PagesDesiree’s Baby—A Literary Analysis In the short story, â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† Kate Chopin exposes the harsh realities of racial divide, male dominance, and slavery in Antebellum Louisiana. Although written in 1894, Chopin revisits the deep-south during a period of white privilege and slavery. Told through third-person narration, the reader is introduced to characters whose individual morals and values become the key elements leading to the ironic downfall of this antebellum romance. As Chopin takesRead MoreEssay on Formalistic Analysis of Kate Chopins Desirees Baby946 Words   |  4 PagesFormalistic Analysis of Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby  Ã‚   The short story â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby† is told by a third person omniscient point of view. The narrator, whose character or relationship to the story never receives any discussion, is a seemingly all-knowing observer of the situation. Although the narrator does not take sides towards issues that arise during the course of the text, her general view does shape the overall characterization of the white Southern society. The text exhibits interesting cluesRead MoreDesirees Baby Analysis Essay1415 Words   |  6 Pagesstory by Kate Chopin and its use of symbols, setting and characters. Desiree’s baby was perhaps one of the best stories I’ve ever read. Analyzing it was not easy at all. Its use of symbols was very hard to comprehend. At first, it doesn’t make sense. But as you think critically, all the symbols, and setting and the characters in this literature plunge together in one amazing story. Literary Analysis on Kate Chopins Desirees Baby â€Å"Tell me what it means!† she cried despairingly.† It means,†Read More Kate Chopins Desirees Baby Essays1394 Words   |  6 PagesKate Chopins Desirees Baby This essay will focus on the short story by Kate Chopin and its use of symbols, setting and characters. Desiree’s baby was perhaps one of the best stories I’ve ever read. Analyzing it was not easy at all. Its use of symbols was very hard to comprehend. At first, it doesn’t make sense. But as you think criticallyRead MoreDesirees Baby by Kate Chopin Essay1239 Words   |  5 PagesImagine finding out that your entire life was a lie, and that every single thing you knew about your identity and your family was completely false! Armand Aubigny, one of the main characters in Desiree’s Baby by Kate Chopin, experiences this exact dilemma throughout this short story. Desiree’s Baby is a story about a young man and woman, who fall in love, but Desiree, who does not know her birth parents, is considered nameless. When she and Armand have a child, they are both very surprised becauseRead MoreAn Examination Of How Kate Chopin s Work1298 Words   |  6 Pagesinterest in feminism and suffrage did not have to do with a lack of confidence in women nor did it have a lack to do with a lack of any desire for freedom. She simply had a different understanding of freedom.† (Jhirad) Kate Chopin was, through her literary works, a champion of female independence. As a married woman, she made efforts to avoid the typically expected gender stereotyping of her day, living with a flare of impetuousness (Jhirad). As a mother of six children, she embodied the strength thatRead MoreEssay about Desirees Baby2009 Words   |  9 Pagesperson. Kate Chopin exemplifies these roles very accurately within her story, Desiree’s Baby. In the short fiction story, Desiree’s Baby, the author Kate Chopin incorporates many motifs, symbols, and imagery to describe gender assumptions and racial roles for both men and women in the 1800s by narrating the story of an adopted mother named Desiree, with no known lineage, and her prideful husband Armand. The most notable literary devices Chopin incorporates to convey her message about these well defined

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Behaviourism and Reinforcement

Question: Discuss about theBehaviourism and Reinforcement. Answer: Behaviourism refers to the methodical study of the behaviour of people and animals. The study goes into the reasons which dictate a particular behaviour; whether it is a product of the reaction of the organism to a particular stimulus in its external environment or is a force of habit based on previous experiences which decides the state of the organism and how it perceives the stimulus; whether it acts to reinforce a certain behaviour or acts as a deterrent as punishment. One of the most important factors which goes into the study is the role of the environment which has a drastic influence on the behaviour. Behaviourism is a multifaceted study which involves philosophy and psychology and it has undergone a lot of evolution over time. The early studies into it was in the 19th century and it was a product of studies into psychology which required more experimental analysis. It is by the determined contributions of eminent scientists that behaviourism has developed as a separate field of psychology. It is the works of Sechenov, Pavlov, and Bekhterev which established the concept of reflexive conditioning and the effect that it has on the behaviour. Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov and his studies in physiology have paved the way to further studies into reflexes and nerve pathways. His books dealing with the study of behaviours raised a lot of new concepts and questions about the perceived theories which governs and regulated our response to stimuli and higher nervous functions. He is considered as ''The father of Russian physiology'' and he was the one who introduced the concepts of electrophysiology into the study of the brain as he showcased the correlation between electric currents and brain activity.. He was an incredibly influential scholar who inspired further study into the field of neurophysiology and neuroscience and introduced the concepts of how spinal reflexes are inhibited by the brain. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is world famous for his works on classical and reflexive conditioning and the introduction of the concept made him a household name. His studies correlating physiology with neurology and behavioural studies were monumental in formulating the principle of reflexive conditioning, which have been experimentally and clinically proven and have a variety of applications in behaviour assessment, reinforcement, conditioning especially in classrooms (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). His experiments on dogs have been ground-breaking to try and understand the concepts of involuntary reflexes and serves as the foundation on which all modern behavioural theories are based upon (Moore et al, 1978). The serendipitous nature of his discovery of classical conditioning while working on the physiology of dogs was a breakthrough in the field (Tarpey, 1975) and it showed the theory of antecedent control in classical conditioning. Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev predominantly worked in the field of neurology but his studies into psychology has given him the epitaph of the father of objective psychology. His studies into the human brain have provided a base for the study of memory, reflexes and diseases. He was an academic rival of Pavlov as they had conflicting views on the study of conditioned reflexes and the principles of objective psychology (Akimenko, 2007). These concepts lay the foundation for the study of reflexes and behaviourism. Pavlov and Bekterev both arrived independently at explanations for conditioned reflexes as a reaction to the external environment. Bekhterev's study into association reflex is akin to the Pavlovian theory of conditioned reflex as they both try to explain Watson's theory of behaviourism which relied on Pavlov's research but was better supported by Bekhterev's conclusions (Hergenhahn, 2009). Bekhterev was a critic Pavlov's experiments on dogs as he was not in favour of using t he saliva observation and the use of acid to stimulate saliva flow. He favoured the use of electric stimulus to induce motor reflexes as he felt that it was much easily and accurately reproducible in humans (Moroz, 1989) John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner conducted the Little Albert experiment at the prestigious Johns Hopkins University with the findings published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1920. The experiment was to showcase the concepts of classical conditioning. The experiment was a replication of the Pavlovian method of conditioning, but on infants, a nine month old boy in this case who was called ''Albert''. After establishing a basic emotional response of the baby towards a variety of stimuli like rats, rabbits, cotton, masks and other furry or hairy items, they went on to establish a response from him when he is playing with the rat. He is them subjected to a sudden loud noise which induces him to cry and be scared. This was repeated to establish the stimulus and then the baby was exposed only to the stimulus of the rat without the noise which was seen to induce a conditioned reflex of fear and crying in the boy. Similar response was observed with some of the other furry obje cts too which meant that the reflex was generalised but not with all hairy objects (Schwartz, 1986). The experiment showed how a conditioned response can be induced in humans by the process of conditioning a reflex to an unconditioned stimulus just like it was done by Pavlov in dogs. The concept of stimulus generalisation was also experimentally shown in this experiment which further broadened the study into behaviour and conditioned reflexes. A study like this would not be ethically accepted in the present scenario where it is mandatory to follow the ethical guidelines while conducting any experiment, especially on humans. There have also been concerns raised about the need to desensitize the subject against the stimulus lest he would have a lasting phobia of it all throughout his life raising concerns of lasting psychological trauma (Powell et al., 2014). This was not addressed by Watson. Additionally, the nature of the experiment itself left a lot to be desired and would not be a ccepted conclusively by modern standards. The experiment had only a single subject, and there was a lack of control subjects to provide a suitable balance to the study. There are a lot of regulations that have to be followed when using humans as subjects for research studies. Also there is lack of a proper records and data to provide fool proof legitimacy to the study. As mentioned by Harris, there is not enough consensus among the scientific community to come to a precise conclusion (Harris, 2010). Burrhus Frederic Skinner made significant contributions towards the study of psychology, behaviourism and philosophy and he was a prolific author and thinker of his time. He termed his method of conditioning as operant conditioning. He believed that the rate of response is the strongest and most effectual gauge to measure the strength of the response He put forward the notion of radical behaviourism (Skinner, 1974) and showcased the experimental nature of the studies that go into psychology. Through radical behaviourism, he formulated his ideas about the events and history that affect the behaviour of an organism. Conventional ideas in behaviour studies do not include internal events like emotions and perception in its fold whereas radical behaviourism includes them and considers them as having an effect on the overall behaviour. In his book Behaviour of Organisms, he provides a framework which governs the effect of the factors of the environment. He set out the difference between Pa vlovian conditioning (conditioned/reflexive conditioning) and operant conditioning. Whereas in Pavlovian conditioning, there is the correlation between a neutral stimulus and one which elicits a response, operant ones are not elicited as a response. Rather they are built up and gather strength over a period of time by conditioning. This theory proposes that behaviours are not always manifested as a response to a stimuli, rather they are a result of the gradual strengthening by operant behaviour or ''shaping'' as Skinner put it. He put forward the three term contingency which states the need for a reinforcer that is a result of the original stimuli (Jenkins, 1979). This goes a long way to explain the complexity of human behaviour which are often governed by a number of factors and responses. Skinner positions negative reinforcements to be equal to punishment and an influential factor in governing behaviour as the motivation to remove an undesired event acts as a motivation for behavi our. Along with Ferster, Skinner put forward the various stages of the reinforcement to explain the complete mechanism that goes to determine behaviour in operant conditioning (Ferster Skinner, 1957). Continuous reinforcement is where a reinforcement is gained by the subject when a particular event occurs. It is useful in cases where a desired behaviour has to be set up quickly by setting up a correlation between the desired behaviour and the reinforcement. Interval Schedule is where there is a time gap between the reinforcements. Fixed Interval Schedule is where the reinforcers are introduced in regular intervals such that the desired reaction is seen. A schedule like this has a low initial response but it increases exponentially in time for the next schedule of reinforcement. For example, people who are paid according to the number of hours worked. Variable Interval Schedule is where the time intervals between the introduction of reinforcers are random. In this, the response rate is also variable. For people who go fishing, the time taken to catch the number of fish varies. Ratio Schedule is where it varies according to the ratio of response to reinforcement. Fixed Ratio Schedule is where the reinforcement is applied only after the completion of a particular number of responses. For example, people who are paid commission on number of sales made. Variable Ratio Schedule is where the response count is variable and random between consecutive reinforcements. For example, slot machines and other gambling games. Conclusion The detailed discussion on the subject has helped in getting a closer insight into behaviorism and reinforcement. The contributions of some of the most reputed researchers have helped in getting an effective understanding of the subject and their application in the current scenario. Furthermore, reinforcement has been discussed and described from varied perspectives to understand the human behavior and the schedules that are involved in the same. Works Cited Akimenko, M. A. (2007). Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev.Journal of the History of the Neurosciences,16(1-2), 100-109. Ferster, C. B. and Skinner, B. F. Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Harris, B (1979)."Whatever Happened to Little Albert?"(PDF).American Psychologist.34(2): 151160.doi:10.1037/0003-066x.34.2.151. Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, Sixth Edition. Behaviorism (pp. 394397). Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Jenkins, H.M. "Animal Learning and Behavior", Ch. 5, in Hearst, E. "The First Century of Experimental Psychology" (1979) Erlbaum: Hillsdale, N. J) Moroz, Oleg (1989). "The Last Diagnosis: A Plausible Account That Needs Further Verification".Soviet Review(6 ed.). pp.82102. Olson, M. H.; Hergenhahn, B. R. (2009).An Introduction to Theories of Learning(8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp.201203. Powell, R. A., Digdon, N., Harris, B., Smithson, C. (2014). Correcting the record on Steven Schwartz;Classic Studies in Psychology;Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing,1986; print. Tarpy, Roger M. (1975).Basic Principles of Learning. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company. pp.1517. Watson, Rayner, and Little Albert: Albert Barger as Psychologys lost boy.American Psychologist,69(6), 600. William Moore, J.; Manning, S. A.; Smith, W. I. (1978). Conditioning and Instrumental Learning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp. 5261. ISBN 0070429022. Crofts (1957). "Different Types of Reinforcement Scedules"(PDF) National Professional Development Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders. RetrievedApril 21,2017.